A procedure is a set of instructions designed to achieve some result, such a calculating a function or displaying an image. A procedure is invoked using the CALL instruction, and the procedure ends with the RET instruction. This isn’t exactly news to you, and you have seen dozens of procedures already, but those were relatively simple examples. Today you will learn how to create procedures that can do all the little tricks that HLL procedures can.
Procedures and the Stack
The call/return mechanism, to work effectively, needs to know from
CALL instruction was executed so that it can
return properly. It does this by pushing the PC register (actually it
adds three so that the address of the next instruction is pushed — the
return address) onto the stack. The
RET instruction pops
the top of the stack into PC. The LIFO nature of the stack means a
procedure can call a procedure which can call another procedure, and so
on ad inifinitum and they will all return in the proper
Since the stack is used to store the return address, you must exercise caution when pushing and popping from within a procedure. Check out this defective procedure:
Bollixed: PUSH DE RET
RET instruction isn’t aware that the top of the
stack isn’t an address, it’s not as if there’s a banner tagged on that
RET I’m not what you’re looking for so you better
not screw with me!”. No, it simply pops the top stack value blindly.
Since it is very unlikely
DE contains a matching value (the
odds are 1 in 65, 536), the program will “return” into oblivion. Popping
RET creates the same problem. So just remember
to take proper care of the stack in a procedure.
Whenever you call a procedure, a certain amount of stack space is allocated to hold information relating to that procedure, such as a return address and saved registers. Such a block is called a stack frame.
Stack frames are what give procedures the ability to call other procedures (even themselves!) without the CPU getting confused. Before returning, a procedure must clean up the stack frame until just the return address exists.
Saving the State of the Machine
This code attempts to print five lines of six X’s. But don’t try to run it! It contains a bug that causes it to print six X’s a line in an infinite loop. The problem here is that both the calling code and the procedure use the B register, but neither saves its value. The result: PrintSpc returns with B equalling 0, causing the DJNZ in the main program to loop forever.
LD B, 5 Loop: CALL PrintSpc b_call(_NewLine) DJNZ Loop RET PrintSpc: LD A, 'X' LD B, 6 PrintLoop: b_call(_PutC) DJNZ PrintLoop RET
If a procedure will modify some registers, they should be saved with PUSH/POP. Either the caller or the callee can take responsibility:
Procedure preserves registers.
LD B, 5 Loop: CALL PrintSpc b_call(_NewLine) DJNZ Loop RET PrintSpc: PUSH BC PUSH AF LD A, 'X' LD B, 6 PrintLoop: b_call(_PutC) DJNZ PrintLoop POP AF POP BC RET
Calling code preserves registers.
LD B, 5 Loop: PUSH BC CALL PrintSpc POP BC b_call(_NewLine) DJNZ Loop RET PrintSpc: LD A, 'X' LD B, 6 PrintLoop: b_call(_PutC) DJNZ PrintLoop RET
What is the practical difference between the two methods? When the
procedure saves the registers, then there is only one copy of the pushes
and pops. When the caller saves the registers, there must be a set of
pushes and pops around each
CALL. Not only does this
increase program size, it can be difficult to always remember which
registers need to be saved.
On the other hand, if the calling code saves the registers, then time doesn’t need to be wasted preserving registers that don’t need to be preserved. In 14-2, the procedure saves both BC and AF, when there is no real point in saving AF. In 13-3, the caller only saves BC since that is the only register it cares about.
A side effect is a computation done by a procedure that is purely
incidental. A procedure is ideally supposed to perform only one task
then exit. Sometimes, however, the steps necessary to execute that task
sometimes result in some data areas holding certain results. A
programmer that uses such results is doing side effect programming.
ClrLCDFull routine leaves BC equalling zero.
You could then use BC to set up text coordinates, which sounds pretty
good. Hey, save three bytes. But suppose that Texas Instruments
introduces a new operating system, wherein
preserves BC. So what happens? If you said “CRAAAASH!”, then
give yourself a dollar. Thus you can see the big problem with SEP: side
effects change. Even better, you have no idea that the side effect has
changed, so you can’t fix the bug, get frustrated, cry for your momma,
and flood bulletin boards, forums, and my e-mail with inane ramblings no
Here is a related case against
SEP. Doubtless you have
seen files on your computed that end in
.DLL? The files are
like procedure dumps programs can use instead of having them inside the
program. Some DLLs come with an application when it is installed, others
are native to Windows (system DLLs). Oftentimes a software company will
use these system DLLs to cut down on size. Even craftier ones will look
for side effects to use. Now we get into a slight problem. Microsoft is
constantly improving, and the latest version of their proprietary
software may contain updates for their DLL files. Quiz: can anyone guess
what happens when a program tries to use the changed side effects? Did
someone say, “Blue Screen o’ Death”? Maybe you noticed that when you
first installed Windows, it was a pretty solid OS. Then as you added
more third-party software, it got a little unstable. And once you got
the latest versions of Office™ and Internet Explorer™ it seemed to crash
every other day?
While quite a few procedures that are entirely self-contained, the majority requre some kind of input to do their job, and many pass results back to the calling code. Such inputs and outputs are called parameters. When you are thinking about passing parameters to a procedure, you’ll ask yourself three questions.
- How much data are you passing?
- Where will the data come from?
- How will the data be passed?
Ways of Passing Parameters
These are the two main ways to pass parameters. While there are other well-known methods, the architecture of the Z80’s memory makes them pointless.
By Value means to send just a value to the procedure. A copy of the input parameter is created and it is this copy that is used throughout the subroutine. The point of by value is for the preservation of the input data over the procedure.
; Pass the variable val to a procedure by value ; Make a copy of the variable LD A, (val) CALL ByVal RET ByVal: ; A holds the input parameter, since we have no access to the original variable ; (not entirely true, but just play along), it can't be modified AND $0F XOR $07 b_call(_PutC) RET val: .DB 99
The size of the data is a deciding factor in choosing to use By Value. Since a full copy must be made, By Value is only good for small data objects and absolutely abyssmal for larger structures.
Parameters passed by value are input-only. You can pass them to a procedure, but the procedure can’t use them for return data.
To pass a parameter by reference you pass its address, in other words, a pointer to it. The routine dereferences the pointer and indirectly accesses the parameter, and as a consequence has the ability to alter it. It is an excellent mechanism for large amounts of data, or whenever you want to enable modification of the parameters.
; Pass the variables val1 and val2 to a procedure by reference ; Create pointers in DE and HL to the variables LD HL, val1 LD DE, val2 CALL ByRef RET val1: .DB 200 val2: .DB 46 ByRef: ; HL and DE hold the address of the parameters and so must be dereferenced. LD A, (DE) ADD A, (HL) LD (DE), A RET
For small amounts of data, pass by reference is usually less efficient than passing by value because the parameters have to be dereferenced each time they are accessed, and dereferencing is slower than using a value.
Parameters passed by reference can be used for input or output.
Places for Passing Parameters
Now that you know how to pass parameters, you probably have the nerve to ask where you can pass them. The place you put a parameter depends a great deal on the size and number of parameters.
If the amount of data being passed is only a small number of bytes, then by all means use the registers to pass them. This method has been used throughout this guide and also by the system routines. There are only a finite and very small number of registers, though. When you run out of them, you need to look into using RAM.
Via Global Variables
Using global variables, reserved bits of RAM in the program or scram memory, is the easiest way to pass a parameter. Many TIOS routines to this also. The problem is that it smacks of inelegance, and even worse it’s hard to maintain what RAM is safe and what is used by a procedure.
Via the Code Stream
Immediately after the CALL to the procedure, place the parameters inline with one or several .DB or .DW statements. Okay, this looks real cool, but the way to access these parameters may elude you until you realize that the return address, the top stack value, is the address of the first parameter. So you pop HL, and if off to the races (this is one of those rare exceptions to the rule of not popping without pushing something first).
Now one problem, if you put back the return address, you will return right after the CALL and the data block will be executed as code. This is solved by modifying the return address so that it points to just after the parameters. Not too difficult to do that because you will usually be at the end of the parameter list when you want to return anyway.
LD HL, 0 LD (CurRow), HL CALL Print_Out .DB "I ain't not a dorkus", 0 RET Print_Out: ; Get the return address/address of parameter POP HL _Loop: LD A, (HL) INC HL OR A JR Z, _Done b_call(_PutC) JR _Loop _Done: ; Much better than POP HL \ RET JP (HL)
You have no excuse for not understanding the code stream mechanism —
you’ve been using it all this time!
b_call(xxxx) is macro
(you should know at least that much by now) that expands to
RST 28h .DW xxxx
RST is the same as CALL, but you can clearly see that the code stream is in use here.
The code stream really is one of the more convenient ways to pass input, and code-stream parameters implement variable-length parameters quite effectively. The string parameter to Print_Out can be any length and the routine will always come off without a hitch.
For all its convenience, the code stream mechanism is not without its disadvantages. First, if you fail to pass exactly the right number of parameters in exactly the right format, the code stream becomes the crash stream. Try leaving off the zero byte, Print_Out prints garbage and returns to god-knows-where. Or you might accidently add in a second zero. Then Print_Out returns in the midst of the string and tries to execute ASCII codes as instruction opcodes. Again, this usually results in a crash (actually most characters will be 8-bit loads that may or may not be harmless).
Via The Stack
Most HLLs use the stack to pass parameters because of its decent efficiency. While certainly slower than using registers, the stack lets you pass a large amount of parameter data (within reason) without difficulty. To pass parameters on the stack, right before you call the procedure, push all the parameters to be used. Now, how to access those parameters. Consider this:
; $ A48E: LD HL, $1C2A A491: PUSH HL A492: LD HL, $5FC0 A495: PUSH HL A496: LD HL, $44DF A499: PUSH HL A49A: CALL Foo A49D: INC A
Upon entry to Foo, its stack frame will look like:
With this as a guide, we can devise two mechanisms of accessing these parameters.
1. Using the EX Instruction
This method was available on the Intel 8080 and is still viable. It involves using a form of EX.
EX (SP), HL
Swaps the value of
(SP)with the value of
Land the value of
(SP+1)with the value of
What can now be done is issue a POP HL as the first instruction of Foo. This will deliver the return address in HL and cause SP to point to the third parameter. By a series of pops and exchanges, the arguments can be cleaned off and the return address put back on top.
Foo: POP HL ; HL = return EX DE, HL POP HL ; HL = parameter 3 LD (Par3), HL POP HL ; HL = parameter 2 LD (Par2), HL EX DE, HL EX (SP), HL ; HL = parameter 1
If the arguments are to be used more than once they will have to be stored to RAM. This requires space and bogs the system down.
2. Using an Index Register
The second method involves reading the parameters directly in the stack. The best way this can be accomplished is by putting the value of SP into an index register and then looking up the parameters by offsetting. While there is no way to directly load the stack pointer into an index register, this will do just as well:
; If you save the machine state, put the number of bytes pushed ; instead of zero in IX LD IX, 0 ADD IX, SP
The parameters to Foo would be as follows:
(IX + 0) LSB of return address
(IX + 1) MSB of return address
(IX + 2) LSB of parameter 3
(IX + 3) MSB of parameter 3
(IX + 4) LSB of parameter 2
(IX + 5) MSB of parameter 2
(IX + 6) LSB of parameter 1
(IX + 7) MSB of parameter 1
The use of indexing offers some glaring disadvantages:
- Instructions with index registers are very slow and large.
- The parameters are not removed from the stack. Their removal must
come after control is returned to the caller, or at the end with
EX (SP), HL.
Although, you could do the same thing with HL, which would result in faster, but less convenient and readable code.
Via a Parameter Block
A parameter block is a structure containing the parameters. To access them you would pass a pointer to the structure, so parameter blocks are supposed to be passed by reference. Parameter blocks are especially useful when you have to make several calls to a procedure, and each invocation you pass constant data (or the data is modified in the procedure). If the parameters change you will have to explicitly modify the parameter block, and this is less efficient (you are basically using a global variable).
At times, a procedure’s point in life will be to calculate some value. You store the return value in an input reference parameter, or you can use a new method called Pass By Result. To pass by result you just store a copy of the output value somewhere. Like passing by value turned on its head.
Procedure results can be stored in most of the ways input paramters can be (except the code stream). To use the stack, special considerations have to be made.
Using that Friggin’ EX (SP), HL
So the top of the stack is the return address, and HL holds the return value?
EX (SP), HL JP (HL) . . .; Back in the main module POP BC ; Result in BC
This can be extended for multiple values.
CALL Fetch POP HL POP BC POP DE RET Fetch: LD HL, (Data1) EX (SP), HL EX DE, HL LD HL, (Data2) PUSH HL LD HL, (Data3) PUSH HL PUSH DE RET
Using that Friggin’ Index Register
Pretty simple, you just use your index register to overwrite the input parameters. If you need more space, push garbage values onto the stack beforehand as placeholders.
CALL Fetch POP HL POP BC POP DE RET Fetch: EX (SP), HL PUSH AF ; Placeholders PUSH AF PUSH HL LD DE, (Data1) LD (IX + 7), D LD (IX + 6), E LD DE, (Data2) LD (IX + 5), D LD (IX + 4), E LD DE, (Data3) LD (IX + 3), D LD (IX + 2), E RET
At times, a procedure may need some temporary storage as it runs. To allocate for local variables, subtract SP. At termination, deallocate by adding. These local variables are best accessed using indexing.
Okay, I absolutely agree that this is this is a mind-numbingly stupid and horrendously inefficent routine, but it does demonstrate local variables.
LD HL, $0000 LD DE, $FFFF PUSH HL PUSH DE CALL Swap POP DE POP HL RET Swap: #define p1_lo (IX + 2) #define p1_hi (IX + 3) #define p2_lo (IX + 4) #define p2_hi (IX + 5) #define temp (IX - 1) LD IX, $0000 ADD IX, SP DEC SP ; Allocate one byte of local vars LD A, p1_lo LD temp, A LD A, p2_lo LD p1_lo, A LD A, temp LD p2_lo, A LD A, p1_hi LD temp, A LD A, p2_hi LD p1_hi, A LD A, temp LD p2_hi, A INC SP ; Deallocate one byte of local vars RET
When is it a good idea to use local variables? Never. Local variables are invariably useless the way the Z80 implements them. But on the bright side if it ever comes up at a party you can say how to allocate local variables in a procedure :-).
Recursion occurs when a procedure calls itself repeatedly, not unlike an iterative loop. Like any other loop, a recursive procedure requires a termination condition (called the base case) to stop an infinite loop. To qualify for recursion, a procedure must be re-entrant. This means that the procedure can restart and terminate without disturbing any previous recursions. For this reason, extensive use of the stack is necessary. Inputs in RAM have to be placed on the stack, and inputs in registers must be preserved in the procedure. Recursion can gobble up a lot of stack space in a very short time.
I’m sure that C.A.R. Hoare’s QuickSort is the most famous and impressive example of a recursive procedure, so here is how to do a 16-bit factorial.
b_call(_ClrLCDFull) b_call(_HomeUp) LD HL, 8 ; Do not try passing inputs greater than 8, ; it will make the routine unhappy PUSH HL CALL Factorial POP HL b_call(_DispHL) b_call(_NewLine) RET Factorial: PUSH IX ; Save previous value of IX for re-entrancy LD IX, 0 ; Set IX as stack frame pointer ADD IX, SP LD A, (IX + 4) ; Get the LSB of the factor OR A ; The base case is "factor == 0" JR Z, BaseCase DEC A ; Subtract one to get next factor LD E, A ; Push factor onto stack as parameter for next PUSH DE ; recursion. The value of D is irrelevant CALL Factorial ; Recurse POP HL ; Retrieve the result from the previous recursion LD E, (IX + 4) ; Get the factor from the previous recursion CALL HL_Times_E ; Multiply 'em LD (IX + 4), L ; Overwrite the previous factor with running product LD (IX + 5), H POP IX ; Restore stack frame pointer from previous recursion RET ; End of this recursion BaseCase: LD (IX + 4), 1 ; Set the $0000 factor to $0001 LD (IX + 5), 0 POP IX ; Restore stack frame pointer RET ; End of this recursion